Active Directory Lab with Hyper-V and PowerShell

Below are some notes with a couple of simple Powershell scripts that I use to:

  • Promote a computer to Domain Controller

  • Create an Active Directory (AD) domain offense.local

  • Join computer to offense.local domain

  • Create users in offense.local domain

The scripts are not intended to fully automate building of the Active Directory lab, rather they serve as cheatsheets that suit most of my needs most of the time.

I use Hyper-V to run my virtual machines (VM) which I installed manually:

  • WS01 - Windows 10

  • DC01 - Windows Server 2019

Promote Computer to Domain Controller

Below script establishes a Powershell Remoting session to the DC01 VM using credentials administrator:123456 (I set that password on DC01 manually before running this script) and does the following:

  • Congifures the IP/DNS addresses - Domain Controller DC01 will have a static IP 10.0.0.6;

  • Installs AD services and management tools;

  • Creates a domain offense.local.

You may need to change the passwords depending on your password policies.

Promote-DC.ps1
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("administrator", $password)
$session = New-PSSession -Vmname dc01 -Credential $credential -Verbose
$code = {
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("administrator", $password)
netsh int ip set address "ethernet" static 10.0.0.6 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.6 1
netsh int ip set dns "ethernet" static 10.0.0.6 primary
$domainName = "offense"
$domain = "$domainName.local"
Write-Host "Installing management tools"
Import-Module ServerManager
Add-WindowsFeature RSAT-AD-PowerShell,RSAT-AD-AdminCenter
Write-Host "Deploying Active Directory Domain..."
Install-WindowsFeature AD-domain-services, DNS -IncludeAllSubFeature -IncludeManagementTools -Restart
Import-Module ADDSDeployment
Install-ADDSForest `
-SafeModeAdministratorPassword $password `
-CreateDnsDelegation:$false `
-DatabasePath "C:\Windows\NTDS" `
-DomainMode "7" `
-DomainName $domain `
-DomainNetbiosName $domainName `
-ForestMode "7" `
-InstallDns:$true `
-LogPath "C:\Windows\NTDS" `
-NoRebootOnCompletion:$true `
-SysvolPath "C:\Windows\SYSVOL" `
-Force:$true
Restart-Computer -Force -Verbose
}
Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock $code
Output of Promote-DC.ps1

Join Computer to Domain

Below script establishes a Powershell Remoting session to the WS01 VM using credentials mantvydas:123456 (I set that password on WS01 manually before running this script) and does the following:

  • Configures IP/DNS settings - the workstation WS01 will have a static IP 10.0.0.7 and a DNS pointing to 10.0.0.6, which is our DC01;

  • Adds computer to the domain.

Join-Member.ps1
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("mantvydas", $password)
$session = New-PSSession -Vmname ws01 -Credential $credential -Verbose
$code = {
netsh int ip set address "ethernet" static 10.0.0.7 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.6 1
netsh int ip set dns "ethernet" static 10.0.0.6 primary
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("administrator", $password)
Add-computer -computername ws01 -domain offense.local -domaincredential $credential -Verbose -Restart
}
Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock $code

Create Domain Users

Below script establishes a Powershell Remoting session to the DC01 VM and does the following:

  • Creates some domain users

  • Sets their passwords to 123456

Create-Users.ps1
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("offense\administrator", $password)
$session = New-PSSession -Vmname dc01 -Credential $credential -Verbose
$code = {
$plainPassword = "123456"
$password = $plainPassword | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("offense\administrator", $password)
# Create users
"spotless", "sandy", "bob" | % { New-ADUser $_ }
# Reset users' passwords
Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties samaccountname | select -exp samaccountname | ? {$_ -notmatch "krb|guest"} | ForEach-Object { Write-host Changing password for $_ to $plainPassword; net user $_ $plainPassword | out-null }
}
Invoke-Command -Session $session -ScriptBlock $code

Before running this script, the password policy needs to be manually updated on DC01:

  • Minimum password length: 0

  • Password must meet complexity requirements: disabled

Don't forget to run gpupdate.exe on the DC01 for the new password policy to take affect. This step is mandatory before running Create-Users.ps1 script, otherwise the user passwords will not be changed.

Setting up Kali in Enhanced Session Mode

Execute the below in kali:

sudo git clone https://github.com/mimura1133/linux-vm-tools /opt/linux-vm-tools
sudo chmod 0755 /opt/linux-vm-tools/kali/2020.x/install.sh
sudo /opt/linux-vm-tools/kali/2020.x/install.sh
sudo reboot -f

Execute the below on the host OS with Hyper V, that is hosting your kali VM:

Set-VM "KALI02" -EnhancedSessionTransportType HVSocket